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[EN/EO] Listen and Learn in Esperanto: How They Save the Tin Woodsman (w/ Subtitles + Vocab guide)

Listen and Learn with this excerpt from the book "The Wonderful Wizard of Oz" by L. Frank Baum, translated by Donald Broadribb. You can turn on subtitles in English or Esperanto to read along, or read the description on YouTube for a link to the entire book!

Haki - To chop, cut, hack, hew

Ligno - Wood, Timber

Lignohakisto - Literally, "wood hacking professional," but you'd probably say "woodsman."

Vivmono - This is a compound word from "Viv-" (Life, live, alive) and "Mon-" (Money), so literally, "life money," but you'd probably say, "livelihood."

Plenkreski - Another compound word from "Plen-" (full, complete, whole) and "Kresk-" (grow, increase, accrue). In this case, it's literally saying, "to fully grow," but is most often used to say, "grow up," or "become an adult."

Prizorgi - To look after, guard, take care of

How do you get married in Esperanto? Naturally, there's "Edzo" (Husband) and "Edzino" (Wife). To become an "Edzo" you need to get married to somebody, "Edziĝi al iu." Samewise, to become an "Edzino," you need to "Edziniĝi al iu." 

Now, supposing that two men are getting married, then you can say both are going to "Edziĝi." Or supposing that two women are getting married, you can say both are going to "Edziniĝi." Or supposing that a man and a woman are getting married, then you'll need the prefix Ge- which specifically indicates the presence of both genders at the same time, "Geedziĝi."

Can you measure beauty? Please note the use of "Tiom" in this sentence: "Unu manĝtula knabino estis tiom bela..." I admire and enjoy the writing style of the translator Donald Broadribb, but his style is heavy and antiquated. The -Om correlatives are best used in situations where you can literally count or measure something, but in situations where you want to express a degree, grade, or severity, then you want to use the -El correlatives. 

If you said, "She's so pretty," how can you count or measure her degree of beauty? There's no measuring cup or ruler that can count beauty, so it's best to say, "Ŝi estas tiel bela."

Siaflanke - A compound word formed from "Sia" (reflexive pronoun that refers to the subject of the sentence) and Flank- (side). Remember that in Esperanto, adverbs describe When, Where, or How something happens. So to say, "Siaflanke," you're saying, "From my own side," or "on my side."

Please note the use of "Ke" in this sentence: "Maljunulino kiu ne volis ke ŝi edziniĝu..." When you see "Ke" in a sentence, it means that we're starting a new thought with its own subject, which is why "Ŝi" (She) after the "Ke" does not refer to the "Maljunulino" (Old woman) that came before "Ke." 

Also note that "Edziniĝu" is in the imperative, or the "commanding" verb tense used to command or order people what to do. In situations where somebody is expressing will, desire, or "force," and the sentence uses "Ke" to join two thoughts, then the verb that follows "Ke" must express that force or will.  

Mastro - Boss, lord, master, manager

Mastrumi - To keep house, manage

Ŝafo -Sheep. Please note that in English, "sheep" is both single and plural, but in Esperanto "Ŝafo" is just one animal. If you want to talk about more than one sheep, then you need to either use "Ŝafoj" (Sheeps), or "Ŝafaro" (flock of sheep.)

Bovino - Cow.

Bovo - Now, you probably saw "Bovino" and figured that to refer to the male of the species you just need to remove the feminine suffix -In, right? Well, I suppose you could, but in the same way that "Li" (He) is used to say either gender when the gender isn't known, "Bovo" doesn't really mean "Bull," but "Head of cattle." If you want to refer to the male of the species, then you need to use the male prefix Vir- to create "Virbovo."

Sorĉi - While the definition of this word is given as "to bewitch," the word is used (at least in this book in Broadribb's translation) as a stand-in for casting a spell or placing an enchantment.

"Unu tagon" = When you see a time word, such as day, week, weekend, month, etc. used with the accusative ending, this is done in order to show precisely when or for how long something took place. For example, "Mi iris tien sabaton" (I went there on Saturday), or, "Mi laboris la tutan tagon" (I worked all day).

How do you say, "As much as possible?" In Esperanto, the usual way to say this is, "Kiel eble, plej multe." For example, "Mi laboris kiel eble plej fervore" (I worked as fervently as possible). However, there are other ways to express this sentiment, and you'll see them in "Laŭeble" (according to, in accordance with + possibility, feature, ability = according to ability) and "Plejeble" (Most, Superlative + possiblity, feature, ability = most possible). Although there are semantic differences between these words, they are functionally the same as "kiel eble plej multe."

Fervora - Fervent, ardent, zealous

Gliti - To glide, slide, or slip. This verb is intransitive, which means it works the same as "Iri" (to go), or "Kuri" (to run). So if you were a witch who enchanted an axe to slip and cut somebody to pieces, then you need the transitive version, "Glitigi" (to make something glide, slide, or slip.)

Detranĉi - To carve, cut off, amputate, clip off. 

Stano - Pewter, tin. Please don't confuse this with "Ŝtalo" (steel)!

Stanisto - Tinsmith

Mendi -  to order, book, reserve

Kutimi - To be accustomed to, be in the habit of. In this book, you'll see "Kutimiĝi" (to get or become accustomed) which you might not understand, but consider the difference between "Sidi" (to sit) and "Sidiĝi" (to sit down, literally, 'to become sitting'). 

Kuraĝigi - To encourage. Literally "to make courageous."

Anstataŭi - To replace. Please note that this verb doesn't work the way you probably think it does! Like "Iri" (to go) or "Kuri" (to run), "Anstataŭi" is intransitive which means that the subject of the sentence performs the action. For example, if you replaced an old lamp in your living room, and you said, "Mi anstataŭis malnovan lampon," you're literally saying that you yourself are the replacement for the old lamp. So, assuming you replaced the old lamp with a new lamp, then you would say, "Mi anstataŭigis la malnovan lampon per nova lampo."

Hazarda - Accidental, chance, random. Please note that this is a false friend for the word "Hazard" in English! If you want to say that something is hazardous, in the sense that it's dangerous, then you'll want either "Danĝera" (dangerous) or "Riska" (hazardous, risky, adventurous). 

Venki - To conquer, defeat, overcome

Duonigi - To halve. In this case, you can use any fraction as your root -- "Duono" (Half), "Sepono" (Seventh), "Naŭdek okono" (Ninety eighths) -- and then add the transitive suffix -Ig to make a verb which says to make it into a half, a seventh, or a ninety eighth.

Fiksi - To attach, fasten, affix, secure, make fast. This word is a false friend and should not be confused for "Fix!" If you want to fix something that's broken, then you should use "Ripari" (repair, fix).
Artiko - Joint, hinge, articulation. It's from this same root that we get "Artikigi" (to articulate, to literally give joints, hinges, or articulation.) Please note that this is not the same as "Artikulacii" which refers to precise or articulate speech!
Rusto - Rust

Oleo - This is your basic word for "oil," the sort of which you would find in the kitchen or even for general use in machinery. Please note that if you want to refer to the kind of oil pumped out of the ground and processed into fuel, then that's "Nafto" (crude oil). From this word "Oleo" we'll also find "Oleujo" (oil container, oil holder) and also the transitive verb "Olei" (to oil, to apply oil).

Koncepti - To conceive, imagine

How do you ask something in Esperanto? Well, that depends on what you're asking! If you're asking for information, or making an inquiry, then you want "Demandi," as in, "Mi demandis ŝin pri la kuko" (I asked her about the cake). But if you're asking to have or receive something -- as if you're making a "petition" -- then you need "Peti," as in, "Mi petis ke ŝi donu al mi la kukon" (I asked her to give me the cake).